All about tea

      There are very few foods and beverages, which have as many facets as tea.
      It is one of the most important beverages, which manages the balancing act of combining modernity and tradition.
      The resulting responsibility dictates the way we handle our teas. For instance, the quality of the tea is only one determining factor for the purchasing decision of our tea tasters.
      Longstanding contacts to plantation managers, the cultivation conditions of the teas as well as the social conditions on the plantations lead to a trustful cooperation with our partners and the product. The consideration and worship of all these facets is the guarantor for first class quality teas and the preservation of a continuous and high-performing cultivation of tea.

      The Tea shrub
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      Tea, a tree-like plant, is maintained shrub -like for the tea cultivation by regular pruning. Tea belongs to the species of the camellia. The evergreen shrub has got dark, ridged, leather-like leaves. The flower is white or rose-coloured; the fruit is small with a hard shell, similar to a hazelnut. Nowadays, its reproduction is rarely done through pollination but rather vegetative, where cuttings are grown on the high-yielding parent shrub. Thea Sinsensis (or Chinese Tea) It remains shrub-like even without regular cutting and grows to a height of only 3 - 4 m. This shrub flourishes best in moderate climatic zones and can even withstand frost. The China-tea plant has been cultivated for many thousand years which resulted in an art variety of approximately 5,000, which are, however, not all cultivated in notable amounts. Thea Assamica (or Assam-Tee) It becomes a grand tree of a height of 15 - 20 m if not cut back regularly. This tea shrub requires a lot of warmth and is a purely tropical plant. It was discovered in 1823 as a grown tree in the jungle of Northern India. Only a few years later it was already cultivated. The Assam plant leaves are larger than that of the China tea plant. These two primal tea plants have been crossbred again in order to develop finer, more aromatic and, especially, more robust breeds. The so-called Assam-hybrid has proven particularly suitable. It is important to acknowledge that the differences in taste and quality not only depend on the plant itself, but also on the cultivation region, its climatic conditions and the diligent plucking as well as processing of the tea leaves.


      The Tea Harvest
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      In the tea cultivation countries, generally only the upper leaf bud and the next two leaves, the youngest ones of a spout ("two leaves and a bud") are plucked. Further, i.e. older leaves than these generally have a negative influence on the quality of the finished tea.
      In the higher up, cooler regions, the tea naturally grows slower. This enables the particularly fine, automatic character to enfold. The harvesting time also has a significant influence on the quality of the tea. The plucking requires a large amount of care as well as skill and is often done by women. The average plucking capacity amounts to approximately 16 - 24 kg of green leaves per day. This amount yields 4 - 6 kg of finished tea. Two to three times a day, the green leaves are transported to the factory on the plantation. The green, fresh leaves are still entirely neutral in scent and first have to be treated in the tea factory, passing through various production steps, in oder to create an aromatic tea.

      Processing
      As opposed to coffee, which is imported as green coffee and receives its final form in the country of consumption via sorting and roasting, tea is already processed on the plantations in the country of orgin and then exported in its final form. The most important phases of the treatment with respect to orthodox tea production (which can be used for the production of any type of tea desired as opposed to the later explained CTC production) are: withering, rolling, fermenting, drying and sorting into leaf and broken grades, i.e. sizes.
      1. Withering
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      When the fresh leaves reach the factory, they are weighed and the amount is registered. Next, the withering process is commenced where the humidy content of the leaves is reduced by about 30 % in order to make them soft and flexible for the subsequent rolling. The withering takes place in special withering throughs of a length of 25 - 30 m, which are stringed with a wire grid and ventilated with large fans. The leaves are spread out on the grid. The air, which moves through the ventilators, can also be heated if required due to higher humidity content of the leaves. The withering process takes 12 - 18 hours.
      2. Rolling
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      Subsequently, the withering green leaves are rolled in large rolling machines. These generally conist of two large, heavy metal plates, which are rotating against each other and are hereby breaking open the cells, bringing the cell fluid into contact with the oxygen in the air. This introduces the fermentation as well as the development of the essential oils, which then determine the scent and the flvour of the teas. The rolled tea, which now already starts to ferment, is brought into the fermentation room. Some tea factories subsequently use a so-called "rotorvane" machine, a type of shredder, which further processes the leaves. Here, the leaves are moved across a slowly rotating screw conveyor through a cylinder into which oxygen is introduced in order to accelerate the fermentation.
      3. Fermentation
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      The fermentation is an oxidation and tanning process of the cell fluids, which have been released during the rolling. For the fermentation, the leaves are spread out on tables in layers of 10 cm. In modern factories, spraying water from rotating ventilators humidifies the room in which the fermentation takes place. During the fermentation - which takes 2 - 3 hours - the leaves change their colour, which gradually becomes a copper-red. This colour is found again in wet tealeaves of the infusion. The "tea maker" needs to constandly monitor the degree of oxidation, particularly whith respect to the scent of the wet leaves. The quality of the finished tea is very much dependent on the correct fermentation.

      4. Drying
      The fermentation is finished when the desired grade of fermentation is reached, i. e. as soon as the tea has developed its typical smell and the copper-red colour is dried. For this, so-called tiered dryers are used which are fuelled wiht wood or oil. The tea is moved through the dryer on a conveyor belt. The starting temperature amounts to 90°C and binds the cell fluid firmly to the leaves. Towards the end of the 20-minute long drying process, the temperature decreases to 40°C and the humidity content to approximately 6%. Later, when the tea is infused, the cell fluid, which stuck to the dried leaves, is solved in the hot water and produces the aromatic and invigorating drink.
      5. Sorting
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      The black tea, which is released by the dryer, is the so-called raw tea, which is now sieved via a number of shaking, mechanical sieves wiht varying sieve sizes with which the common leaf grades are separated from each other.

      Depending on the sieve sizes, sorting generally yields the following grades:

      Leaf Tea - Broken Tea - Fannings - Dust

      Generally vaild: the smaller the leaft, the stronger the infusion.

      Tea is a natural product, which is made durable by reducing its humidity content. It should be stored in a cool and dry place. The tea retains ist original taste when kept in a tightly closed container, away from strongly smelling foodstuff such as spices.

      Green Tea Production
      Green Tea differs from black tea simply by it not being fermented, i.e. not altered by oxidation. The production process is generally the same until after the withering. During the green tea production, the tea tannins and enzymes are destroyedvia steam treatment or roasting after the withering, before the rolling starts - the tea is "steamed" or "pan-fried" and then rolled and dried. This ensures that the leaves are not coloured copper-red like the black tea leaves, but remain olive-green. The infusion varies depending on the variety, cultivation area and plucking period and can be anything from light yellow to dark green.

      CTC-Production
      This term means: Crushing - Tearing - Curling

      This method starts by withering the green leaves, then rolling them once before they are torn in the CTC machine in between thorned rollers. This ensures that the cells are broken up more thoroughly and quickly than in case using the orthodox tea production. CTC tea is of a more intensive colour and is higher yielding. The stems and leaf ribs are extracted to a large extent and only the cut "flesh" of the green leaves is processed further. Afterwards, the tea is brought into the fermentation room. Depending on the desired leaf siez, this process is repeated several times.

      During the CTC-Production, mainly fanning is produced, no leaf teas and only very few broken teas. Therefore, CTC teas are very suitable for tea bags. Nowadays, tea in India is already produced to 50% and tea in Kenya almost to 100% using the CTC method. In Darjeeling, however, only orthodox tea is produced.

      The most important grades are:

      BP = Broken Pekoe, PF= Pekoe Fannings, PD = Pekoe Dust
      The Different Grades
      Differentiation According to Leaf Sizes
      Generally it is differentiated between leaf teas and broken teas. The small-leafed broken teas, which are cut during the repeated rolling, are naturally very high yielding. The names of the grades are often very imaginative and vary even from plantation to plantation. They are always an expression referring to the leaf size and optic and only to a lesser extent do they address the taste (e.g. flowery), never, though, can they inform about the general quality of the tea. The quality judgement of the teas offered is always made during the tasting.

      Below the most important grades for:

      a) Leaf Tea
      1. Flowery Orange Pekoe = FOP

      In Darjeeling also Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe = GFOP and Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe = TGFOP. This refers to a thin, wiry leaf with tips. Tips are the golden or silver-coloured, visible leaf tips (buds), which contain less tannin and, hence, do not darken during the fermentation. They indicate that young tealeaves were used; however this is not necessarily a determinant of exceptional quality.

      2. Orange Pekoe = OP

      A long, wiry leaf, larger than the FOP. The meaning of the term is unknown. Orange refers to the Dutch "Oranje", which means "royal".

      3. Pekoe = P and Flowery Pekoe = FP

      This leaf is shorter and larger than the Orange Pekoe, often also more open and not as finely rolled. Ceylon "low-grown" Pekoes have a ball-shaped leaf. Pekoes are stronger in the infusion than the Orange Pekoe, because the latter contains more leaf ribs and less "flesh".

      b) Broken Tea 1a. Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe = FBOP
      This grade refers to the larger and very aromatic qualities of the small-leafed teas. A well-structured, well-rolled leaf with many tips, which yield an attractive appearance.

      1b. Golden Broken Orange Pekoe = GBOP
      A very fine and strong tea, especially with respect to Assam.

      2a. Broken Orange Pekoe = BOP

      A well-structured leaf, which has fewer, tips than the FBOP, but is stronger and less flowery.

      2b. Broken Orange Pekoe 1 = BOP 1

      On some plantations in India, this is the explanation for the FBOP, in Ceylon it is, however, a "semi-leaf tea", a grade, which is between the OP and the BOP.

      3. Broken Pekoe =BP
      With respect to the CTC method, BP is a grade, which yields a very strong cup.
      4. Fannings and Dust

      The smallest parts of the leaf, without the stem of ribs, which are collected during the sieving. Fannings and Dust are high yielding, strong, colour the cup quickly and, hence, are preferred for use in tea bags.

      Explanation of the abbreaviations considering some examples:

      SFTGFOP - S (Super) F (Finest) T (Tippy) G (Golden) F (Flowery) O (Orange) P (Pekoe)- large leaf
      FP - F (Flowery) P (Pekoe) - small leaf
      GFBOP - G (Golden) F (Flowery) B (Broken) O (Orange) P (Pekoe) - fine broken BOPF - B (Broken) O (Orange) P (Pekoe) F (Fannings) - fannings
      CTC - C (Crushing) T (Tearing) C (Curling) - round leaf


      Tips for Making Tea
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      1. For your general information, our tea varieties are fitted with some recommendations for their preparation.

      2. These recommendations are only suggestions based on our experience. Certainly,every tea lover should prepare his/her favourite tea according to his/her personal taste.

      3. The basic rule for making tea: tea should be brewed with boiling water. Green tea, however, differs: the water should be brought to boil and then left to cool down to the appropriate temperature as stated in the recommendations.

      4. A general rule for caffeine-containing tea varieties: an infusion of up to 3 minutes has a stimulating-, over 3 minutes a calming effect.

      5. After the tea is brewed, it should be poured through a strainer into a pre-heated teapot.

      6. Green tea can be infused several times; this reduces the bitterness of some varieties.


      Specialities
      Rooibos Tea and Honeybush

      South Africa Rooibos ... the message from Africa.

      The African all-rounder offers unexpected advantages. Both Rooibos and
      honeybush are free of caffeine and tannic acid. For this reason the preparation is very easy. Too much tea or longer brewing times do not have such big effects and the infusion remains perfectly enjoyable.
      We only import high-quality Rooibos qualities with most thorough sifting and cleaning. Our Rooibos is repeatedly sieved so as to ensure an even and high quality final product. We work with a “super grade” quality from cultivated rank growth. The needles are long and even. An indication of first quality, which clearly distinguishes this tea from a “choice grade”.
      Rooibos tea can be excellently improved with most different decorations. For instance, mallow or sunflower blossoms are excellently set off against the thin, rust-brown needle-like leaf.

      Herb Tea and Spice Tea Blends
      South America

      Herbs … indulgence without limits.

      Hardly any other brewed drink offers such a large flavour variety,
      as do herb tea blends. Spicy, flowery, sweetish, sour – even hot – no flavour is missing. No limit is set while enjoying this beverage since it is mostly without caffeine, tannin or acid. Each herb plant already impresses with its taste. There are barely any parallels, even under similar looking plants. Thus the Nana Mint differs from peppermint in its typical “spearmint” note while the eucalyptus gives a rather crisp freshness.
      Fresh raw goods from the country of origin, carefully refined in Germany, are of utmost importance to us. Quality and freshness are regularly examined. Thus it is not unusual that we change a very proven and reliable partner, including the country of origin, because another product is fresher, more intense and more authentic. Quality plays an important role especially in the intensive flavour of the herb garden.
      And Dethlefsen & Balk always offers first class!


      Ayurveda
      Ayurveda is the world’s oldest, famous doctrine of life and health and comes from the advanced Vedic civilisation of Ancient India. The knowledge has been passed on orally for thousands of years.

      The word Ayurveda comes from the Sanskrit words Ayur (life) and Veda (knowledge) and can be translated with “wisdom of life” or even “science of life”. The Ayurvedic doctrine is also described as the “integrated combination of the empirical doctrine of nature and philosophy” which focuses on the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects, which are necessary to our health. These can be summarised as temperaments (energies) and are the so-called Doshas:

      Vata (Wind, Air, Pneuma)
      Pitta (Fire and Water, Chole)
      Kapha (Earth and Water, Phlegma)

      The essence of the Ayurvedic doctrine is that the Doshas should be harmoniously balanced and this can be supported with the help of the
      strength of certain spices.
      You will find the perfect balance for your energy in our Ayurvedic teas. In our herb tea blends you will find the ideal symbiosis from the Ayurvedic teachings and the European imagination and expectation of taste. Have you ever looked for a “different” tea? Then you will find it here. These intense varieties of taste do not contain any additional flavouring.

      Chai-Tee
      Commonly known as the national drink in India, Chai Tea is becoming more and more popular also in our regions. The classic components of Chai tea are black tea and spices common in India such as cloves, fennel, aniseed, cardamom, pepper and ginger. Chai tea is not only loved for its taste but also for its well-known positive effects on mind and body.
      Our Chai tea is a symbiosis of Indian and European culture. Rooibos or green tea combined with Chai spices receives a new, very special note. We recommend adding milk (7/8 tea with 1/8 milk) to all Chai varieties, this takes away some of the spiciness and creates a very pleasant taste.
      Wellness-Tee
      Wellness ... more than just a trend

      The origin of the word “Wellness” is to be found in the terms “well-being” and “fitness”. Together, these concepts are the current definition of a healthy, conscious and vital way of life, which is based on the well being of body, mind and soul.
      One of its main focuses is great care in the dealings with nature and natural products and the simple integration of this concept in everyday life. The choice of precious ingredients and gentle treatment thus contribute to the creation of tasty, yet beneficial products.
      For us this means to use noble ingredients such as kombucha, Aloe vera or wakame seaweed, and to let ourselves be inspired by wellness
      philosophies and nature-focused principles of the spiritual and wellness effects of the ingredients. The integration of these ingredients produces surprising compositions with impressive taste nuances. By using only tasty, yet beneficial ingredients we can be true to the original idea of well-being and fitness.